Sapphire is the most precious and valuable gemstone comes out of the ground . Sapphires can come in different color such as blue yellow green pink white (color less ). It is a very grateful gemstone because it has excellent color, hardness, durability, and luster. Most common and expensive sapphire comes in blue color In the gem trade. However, the term Sapphire encompasses all other gem varieties and colors of Corundum as well, excluding Ruby, the red variety of Corundum, which has its own name since antiquity. to achieve a color change (get a better color or make it to color less )sapphire can heat up to 1850C on different conditions depends on your expectation. even though sapphire comes from many different countries, Sri Lankan sapphire are most famous sapphires in the international gem trade because of the color and the luster.

Different types of sapphires.

• Blue sapphire
• Yellow Sapphire (sometimes also called “Golden Sapphire” if intensely colored)
• Pink Sapphire
• White Sapphire (Describes Sapphire that is colorless)
• Green Sapphire
• Purple Sapphire
• Orange Sapphire
• Black Sapphire


Chemical Formula Al2O3
Color White, Colorless, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange, Brown, Pink, Purple, Gray, Black, Multicolored
Hardness 9
Crystal System Hexagonal
Refractive Index 1.76 – 1.77
SG 3.9 – 4.1
Transparency Transparent to opaque
Double Refraction .0008
Luster Vitreous to adamantine
Cleavage None, but may exhibit parting
Mineral Class Corundum

• Color-Change Sapphire – Sapphire that exhibits a different color in natural and artificial light.

• Cornflower Blue Sapphire – Describing Sapphire with a cornflower-blue color, which can be better described as an intense, velvety-blue color. This term is often used in conjunction with Kashmir Sapphire to describe the Sapphire of that region, but it can also be used to describe any Sapphire with such color. Cornflower blue is the most desirable color in a Sapphire.

• Fancy Sapphire – Describing any Sapphire with a color other than blue.

• Kashmir Sapphire – Sapphire with an intense, velvety-blue color, described from the Kashmir Province of India. Kashmir Sapphire is considered to have the finest color of all Sapphire.

• Padparadschah – Orange-pink variety of Sapphire that is found in Sri Lanka; highly regarded and one of the most valuable forms of Sapphire.

• Star Sapphire – Well-known form of Sapphire displaying asterism in the form of a distinct, six-rayed star. Of all the gemstones that display asterism, Star Sapphire is most highly regarded and well-known.